There are many differences in the dietary biology of these species as they primarily eat fish, occasionally supplemented by water birds or other semi-aquatic prey, and obtain more of their food via scavenging of dead or injured animals or via kleptoparasitism than golden eagles do.  Adult female reindeer weighing 60 to 70 kg (130 to 150 lb) have been killed in three cases in central Norway. Buuveibaatar, B., Young, J.K., Berger, J., Fine, A.E., Lkhagvasuren, B., Zahler, P. & Fuller, T.K. 1982. All ground squirrels live in burrows, which in species like prairie dogs can be quite elaborate. Mollhagen, T.R., Wiey, R.W. This includes any potentially dangerous prey items, such as rattlesnakes and foxes. When it comes to carrion and kills, usually the "aggressor" (that is the eagle who initiates the agonistic behavior) is victorious over the other eagle. Paper 13. Katzner, T.E., Bragin, E.A., Knick, S.T.  Ravens and peregrine falcons have both been robbed of food on a few occasions by golden eagles. They comprise about 11.2% of the prey taken by this species across the range. Well over 400 species of vertebrate have been recorded as prey.  In a study of four cliff-nesting raptor species in Spain, the golden eagle was not observed to engage in agonistic encounters with the other species but the peregrine falcons but were dominated by and occasionally killed by a relatively small race of Eurasian eagle-owls (Bubo bubo hispanus). Oologist 37:122.  The taking of larger ungulates is exceptional but has been verified in several cases, and is most likely to happen in late winter or early spring, when other available prey is scarce and (in most of the range) eagles are not concerned with carrying prey to a nest. However, both are generally dominated by the much larger eagle and will actively avoid nesting in the same area as a golden eagle pair. Despite several reported antagonistic interactions, no other raptors were found as prey in the Bale Mountains nests of golden eagles.  In general, the dietary breadth is greater in Eurasia than it is in North America, where eagles frequently only need to hunt two or three species throughout the nesting cycle. Two species, the white-tailed eagle and the bald eagle, overlap in distribution frequently with golden eagles.  Few other large raptors have been tested in their foot strength, though the huge harpy eagle, when tested, exerted a psi approximately 40 kg (88 lb) greater than the tested golden eagle. A., Zuberogoitia, I., Zabala, J., Redpath, S. M., & Calvo, J. F. 2008. Contributions to the American Eagle Foundation are tax-deductible to the extent permitted by law. In 59 studies of the breeding season diet across the range, 63.2% of prey remains were of mammals. In one case, a group of three black-billed magpies were observed to rob a golden eagle of its prey. 1964.  At a Mongolian nest, an apparently live-caught, dismembered adult Mongolian gazelle was observed. The most significant group of prey for golden eagles is mammals.  Few eye-witness accounts are known of owl predation, but one violent mid-day confrontation between a golden eagle and an adult great horned owl was witnessed in Jefferson County, Colorado. & Hiraldo, F.1975. If it is able to surprise the grouse, the eagle has a split second to grab the prey before it flies off. The locally abundant ground squirrels have less dramatic population variations and come out of hibernation in mid to late May (shortly after the eagles return from migration). Raptor Attack Methods and the Response of Little Curlew Numenius Minutus to Disturbance at Broome, North-Western Australia.  In Scandinavia and the Baltic States, grouse are the primary prey for these eagles, comprising between 47.6% and 63.3% of their diet, and displacing mammals altogether. The common feral pigeon was the second most prevalent prey species in Sierra Espuña Regional Park in Spain, making up 18.8% of a sampling of 99 from 5 nests.  Species preyed on include the North American deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) on Santa Rosa Island and the Santa Cruz Islands, the Norway lemming (Lemmus lemmus) in northern Sweden, the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) in the northern highlands of Scotland, great gerbils (Rhombomys opimus) in the Caspian Sea region of Kazakhstan, and grass rats (especially Blick's grass rat, Arvicanthis blicki) and the big-headed mole-rat (Tachyoryctes macrocephalus) in the Bale Mountains. May take smaller rodents (voles and mice) or larger animals such as foxes, young pronghorns, or young deer on occasion.  The average estimated weight of prey taken by most other Aquila species is generally much lower but the wedge-tailed eagle seemingly takes prey of a similar weight (both in average and range of prey weights) while the Verreaux's eagle average prey weight is higher, probably over 2 kg (4.4 lb).. They also eat carrion, reptiles, birds, fish, and smaller fare such as large insects. Many hunts in Scotland of mountain hare involve a somewhat lengthy tail chase. Glutz von Blotzheim, U.N., Bauer, K.M.  A much more passive interspecies guild of eagles have been observed in a wooded area of Kazakhstan, consisting of white-tailed, eastern imperial and golden eagle.  This is a moderate dietary breadth by the standards of the genus Aquila, and not remarkable when compared to some other raptors. Important prey species include the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) (in the Scottish Highlands and the French Alps), the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) (in the Scottish Highlands, Sicily, the Apennine Mountains, Switzerland, Spain, the Central Massif of France and the French Alps, in the first two sites mentioned, the rabbit is invasive species introduced by humans), the brown hare (Lepus europaeus) (in Switzerland, the Apennine Mountains, the French Alps and Armenia), the Japanese hare (Lepus brachyurus) (in Japan), the Cape hare (Lepus capensis) (in Mali and Niger) and the Ethiopian highland hare (Lepus starcki) (in the Bale Mountains) In some areas leporids are secondary prey, such as Scandinavia, where the mountain hare comprised about 20% of prey items, the maximum known being 28.4% in Northern Finland. , Dunn, J., Torre, J. W., Van Hoozer, C. & Goar, J.L ). Before it flies off ] this technique and wolverines trying to hunt turkeys cooperatively. [ 84 ] of Curlew. J. 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