For instance, if you only negate the first part of the statement above and tell someone, “If the stir-fry has no peapods or peppers…” they might interpret that as meaning that neither of those vegetables should be in the stir-fry. For example if it is given that you did not pass the Bar exam then you can conclude that you will not become a lawyer. People who do not read often become smarter. Everyone who loves is happy and everyone who is happy is loved. 8. Craig will not take organic chemistry unless Paula lends him her notes from when she took the class. As for (iv), Craig’s grade is outside the scope of the statement, so it’s quite consistent that he get a B+. 9. “Only if” statements are interpreted differently than regular “if” statements. All If A then B statements can then be converted intoIf Not B then Not A (the Contra-Positive), This is done by taking the second term (B) changing it to the opposite meaning (B becomes Not B) and placing it at the beginning of the If Then statement.Then B becomes If Not B, Next we take the first term (A) change it to the opposite meaning (A becomes Not A) and placing it at the end of the If Them statement.If A becomes Then Not A. As you can see here, If and Only If actually gives you two IF-THEN statements. Press & Media The following tutorial will help you learn formal logic for both the LSAT Analytical Reasoning Section (Games) and the LSAT Logical Reasoning Section. Correct Response: (i), (iii), and (iv) only. The easiest way to deal with that is to remember that “neither X nor Y” is the same thing as “no X and no Y.” The example above can be rephrased as follows: If the stirfry has no carrots or no peppers, then it has neither peapods nor spinach. The pairing of “neither” and “nor” can also cause some consternation. Convert this into an If then Statement separating out two elements of the statement and identifying them as A and B. Remember: the Contra- Positive is the only additional piece of information you can derive from an If Then Statement. “Consistent” doesn’t mean “inferable” or “logically equivalent,” and now you know that even if you didn’t before! Which of the following is/are consistent with the statement above? See also: Examples of IF-THEN statements for Analytical Reasoning questions. What if the sentence isn’t written in the order in which we expect to find the elements? Original Statement: A Only if B = If A then BContra Positive: If Not B then Not A, Original Statement: A If and Only If B = If A then B and If B then AContra Positive: If Not B then Not A, and If Not A then Not B. âAllâ is often used on the LSAT in conditional statements. If Then statements can also include OR as a addition within one of the A or B components. If Michael is not loved (Not RL) then he is Not Happy and does Not Give Love. It can be extremely helpful to individually negate each element of the statement; otherwise, it’s easy to get confused. We’ve covered how to deal with the simplest formal logic statement: If X, then Y. Statements like the above could be something like: If Sara puts bananas in her milkshake she will also add either oranges or blueberries. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. [Choose all that apply]. Understanding formal logic will make many of the Games questions far easier and allow you to come to the correct answer faster. The rich text element allows you to create and format headings, paragraphs, blockquotes, images, and video all in one place instead of having to add and format them individually. Convert this into an IF-THEN Statement separating out two elements of the statement and identifying them as A and B. 6. The simplest statement and its contrapositive might look like this: If the stir-fry has carrots, then it has peapods. Note that not all conditional statements include the words IF-THEN. Signup to our mailing list and stay in touch! Privacy Policy Partner Solutions Get out a pencil and paper and try a few sample questions: If you take an LSAT course then you will score high on the LSAT. 6. If Sara is loved then we can draw no conclusion. On the contrary: test-makers have made a concerted effort (especially in recent years) to scale back the number of LR questions that do so, because such questions disproportionately benefit students who have been exposed to formal logic. Just double-click and easily create content. We can turn that sentence into this: If the burger has onions, then it has mustard. Formal logic is a set of rules for making deductions that seem self evident. If Then statements can be changed by using âOnly Ifâ instead of âIfâ. But what happens when our necessary or sufficient factors become more complicated? 5. LSAT Apprentice Posts: 23 Joined: Tue Sep 15, 2020 12:59 am Points: 23 . There are actually two conditional statements here. Furthermore, the Analytical Reasoning section is based entirely in formal logic. In (iii), Paula has provided the necessary condition for Craig’s taking Orgo – that is, she lends her notes – but necessity is not the same thing as sufficiency. COVID-19 Updates Only if you go to law school can you become a lawyer, If B (you become a lawyer) then A (you went to law school), If Not A (you did not go to law school) then Not B (you can not become a lawyer). That is, "if-then" statements and the infamous contra-positive, the only deduction that can made from such conditional statements. The question âGiven that an accused person was found guilty by a jury you can conclude which of the following?â is asking âif we are given the folloing: If Not B (the accused was Not acquitted/ was found guilty) then what can we conclude?â, If Not B then we can conclude Not A or Not a reasonable Doubt, IF-THEN statements can come in a variety of forms. We will always treat your privacy as our own. Terms and Conditions If you do not have some basis in logic, you must speak to your tutor … (i) Paula does not lend her notes and Craig does not take organic chemistry. LSAT Apprentice Posts: 23 Joined: Tue Sep 15, 2020 12:59 am Points: 23 . Here, you can’t interpret “if” as signaling the sufficient element. Letâs set them both up separately and then combine them. For example if you are given:If A then BYou are not able to fill in any of the following blanks:If B then ?? Hi, I've read the full Formal Logic PDF and am working on the drills and reviewing with … From the combined statements: If Not RL then Not H then Not GL. It’s therefore quite consistent with the statement that, even with Paula’s notes in hand, Craig elects not to take Orgo. Combining the two rules produces the following: The above is referred to as âThe Contra-Positiveâ â knowing this name is not important to the LSAT but understanding the principle behind it is essential to scoring high on the LSAT. Given that an accused person was found guilty by a jury you can conclude which of the following? If either A1 or A2 are missing it becomes Not A. It does not matter if the statement is correct, just that you understand the logic. (ii) Craig takes organic chemistry using only Linda’s notes. âIf you are smartâ becomes âIf Sâ). The LSAT Analytical Reasoning (games) section is riddled with formal logic. Now let’s add more vegetables (and more complicated logic): If the stir-fry has carrots or spinach, then it has peapods and peppers. Remember that âOnly ifâ means you simply switch the order of A and B in the If Then statement. 7. By learning to express IF-THEN statements symbolically and to quickly identify the contra-positive of an IF-THEN statement you can improve your score on the Games and Logical Reasoning sections of the LSAT. Formal Logic is used in numerous Logical Reasoning questions as well as Analytical Reasoning questions. Oops! In the context of the LSAT it relates primarily to IF-THEN statements. So the Or becomes AND when you switch to the contra-positive. If A (the team scores) then B (the crowd will cheer). The “only if” statement above means the same thing as this: If the salad has broccoli, then it has mushrooms. Check back next week. If A (reasonable doubt) then B (accused acquitted), If Not B (Not Acquitted) then Not A (No Reasonable Doubt). Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Understanding formal logic can improve your LSAT score by as much as 10-15 points. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. The LSAT doesn’t explicitly test formal logic in many Logical Reasoning questions; however, your ability to analyze argument structure often depends on your understanding of some basic formal principles. Here’s an important idea: when you are forming a contrapositive, you already know that the necessary and sufficient factors are switched around and negated. See also: Examples of IF-THEN statements for Analytical Reasoning questions. Given the information in number 7. above: If Michael is not loved then what conclusion can we draw? For instance, how do we interpret a sentence that says: Here we can take the word “if” and read the statement that follows it as the sufficient element. This is because the LSAT does not emphasize formal logic. 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